Development of Management
Thought

[Scientific Management]  [General Theories of Administration]  [Libraries as
Organizations]  [Human Relations Movement]
[What is Management?] [Systems Approach] [Contingency Approach] [Management Science Approach]
Management Science Approach

Application of quantitative methods to solve management problems: statistics, operations research, management information systems.

Systems
Approach

Organizations are open systems that constantly interact with the external environment:

inputs (resources and information) -------> transformation process -------> outputs (products, services, information) -------> feedback

Contingency Approach

Appropriate management approach depends on situational factors faced by an organization.

Examples of contingency variables: Organization size, task complexity, environmental uncertainty, individual differences.

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